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Why hardly any babies with Down syndrome are born in Iceland?

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Each year in Australia, roughly 272 babies are born with Down syndrome. In Iceland, the figures don’t nearly compare, with only one to two children born with Down syndrome each year. These rates mean the Nordic country may soon become the first to completely eradicate the genetic condition.

Down syndrome is a congenital disorder that arises from a chromosome defect – specifically, people with Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes in their cells instead of 46, which results in physical, developmental, and intellectual abnormalities.

So, why exactly are Iceland’s figures so low? Quite controversially, their near-eradication of the condition is pinned down to the fact that almost 100% of expectant mothers to children with Down syndrome choose to terminate their pregnancies. In Australia, this figure is closer to 80-90%, according to ABC‘s Lateline program.

In the early 2000s, Iceland introduced prenatal tests, allowing women to screen for the genetic condition in early pregnancy. Now, about 85 per cent of women in Iceland choose to do this testing. While these tests are available all over the world, it’s the likelihood of a woman in Iceland terminating the pregnancy that sets them apart.

Helga Sol Olafsdottir, a pregnancy counsellor in Iceland, spoke to CBS Newsabout why Icelandic women overwhelmingly choose to terminate Down syndrome pregnancies. “We don’t look at abortion as a murder,” she said. “We look at it as a thing that we ended. We ended a possible life that may have had a huge complication… preventing suffering for the child and for the family. And I think that is more right than seeing it as a murder – that’s so black and white. Life isn’t black and white. Life is gray.”

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